Someone who uses HEAT and Pressure to manipulate Ferris (iron) based materials to make tools and everyday items.
Someone who uses HEAT and Pressure to manipulate Ferris (iron) based materials to make knives, swords, and other edged tools used for cutting.
The process smiths use to shape metal by hammering—differs from machining in that forging does not remove material. Instead, the smith hammers the iron into shape. Even punching and cutting operations (except when trimming waste) by smiths usually re-arrange metal around the hole, rather than drilling it out as swarf.
Drawing lengthens the metal by reducing one or both of the other two dimensions. As the depth is reduced, or the width narrowed, the piece is lengthened or "drawn out."
***THIS IS A FORM OF UPSETTING***
When shaping a piece of metal into a complex curve, such as a bowl, the force placed on the smaller radius to stretch causes the metal to develop ripples.
To flatten out the ripples, the metal is compressed between the flat surface of the anvil and the flat head of the hammer, also known as shrinking.
This method works particularly best when both the radius of the anvil and the flat head of the hammer match the radius of the object. Which slightly thickens the material thus minimizing the length and evening out the ripples.
Upsetting is the process of making metal thicker in one dimension through shortening in the other. One form is to heat the end of a rod and then hammer on it as one would drive a nail: the rod gets shorter, and the hot part widens. An alternative to hammering on the hot end is to place the hot end on the anvil and hammer on the cold end.
Heating iron to a "forging heat" allows bending as if it were a soft, ductile metal, like copper or silver.
Bending can be done with the hammer over the horn or edge of the anvil or by inserting a bending fork into the Hardy Hole (the square hole in the top of the anvil), placing the work piece between the tines of the fork, and bending the material to the desired angle. Bends can be dressed and tightened, or widened, by hammering them over the appropriately shaped part of the anvil.
Twists are similar to bends. Only instead of bending the end of the metal into a curve, once you have evenly heated the end of the bar that you want to manipulate to forging heat, you grab hold of the heated end of the bar. And you use a wrench or other tool and manipulate it into a twist.
Punching may be done to create a decorative pattern, or to make a hole. For example, in preparation for making a hammerhead, a smith would punch a hole in a heavy bar or rod for the hammer handle. Punching is not limited to depressions and holes. It also includes cutting, slitting, and drifting—all done with a chisel.
This is the process of joining two or more pieces of the same or similar materials through heat and pressure.